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Define the map

The maps are a graphical representation of a section of the earth's surface in two dimensions obtained by reproducing the characteristic features of the surface. These elements can be natural (rivers , lakes, mountains , coastlines , etc. ) or artificial ( houses, fields , roads, cities, etc. ) , and are represented by graphic symbols (lines, colors, etc. ).

A fundamental characteristic of any cartographic representation of the scale, namely to reduce the surface undergoes represented in the transition from reality to maps.

The reduction defines the type of maps that depending on the scale can be of various types: maps, regional maps and papers corographic ( reproducing large sections of the Earth's surface) , topographic maps (which represent small areas at a relatively large scale ) and finally, world maps , which represent the entire Earth's surface.

The maps are also characterized depending on which items you want to highlight in particular the representation: may give preference to , for example , the network of rivers or other physical elements , or crops , settlements and roads.

The maps provide general basic information , from the point of view of natural or man-made , to know a country or a territory; the maps whose aim is to graphically represent certain phenomena are called thematic maps.

The construction of maps involves a complex series of operations . The key issue is the detection of the surface considered and its faithful representation , which is compliance with the distances between reference points ; equally important is the detection of the individual elements that characterize it , their classification in categories and their hierarchical position.


Features

Main part of the maps are the network of degrees, formed by the parallels and meridians, among which is included a given region. On maps that represent the entire Earth is divided into two hemispheres, the latitude is marked on the circumference meridian and longitude on the equator ; in other papers, the latitude is marked on the lateral margins , and the longitude on the top and bottom margins.

In most maps the current North is up , South down the East and West to the right to the left as you look at the paper even though , historically , we had maps oriented EST (all those who favored the rising of the Sun, if the Christian Earthly Paradise, Jerusalem, site of the Passion , etc. ), or to the south (especially Arabic and Chinese ), rarely oriented to the West (many charts , especially the Portuguese ) . There are, especially between the fifteenth and sixteenth century , atlases where each page is geared toward a different point of the compass . The agreement to standardize the orientation of Western cartography consolidates slowly northward between the seventeenth and the eighteenth century and was consecrated in the nineteenth century.

The horizontal configuration of a region is reproduced by lines, with their sinuous , indicating the outline of the coast , the rivers , streets, railroads , canals, etc..

The vertical configuration , ie, mountains, plateaus , plains , depressions , etc. , you play for approximately half of the hatch and shadows. Special signs indicate the boundaries of the states, capitals , major cities , crossings , etc. .

The world map or globe represents the Earth's surface, or divided into two hemispheres (usually using the meridian of Ferro allows you to have the whole land in either hemisphere ) or in the form of rectangular plane such as the Mercator . The " globe " is often confused with the globe.

The maps have different names depending on the forms , the extension of the region they represent and the special study for which they serve :
The maps represent a continent or a general parts of the world .
The maps corographic represent a state , or a single region .
The topographic maps represent a city or a district with all the details.
The gold - hydrographic maps represent the topography and hydrography of the countries.
The maps show the geological outcropping rocks on the Earth's surface.
The maps show the distribution of the natural flora and fauna.
The maps ethnographic distribution of human populations.
The maps represent the states policies and their administrative divisions .
The military maps are usually very detailed and represent all strategic points.
The maps show the railway lines of communications , navigation , roads postal , telegraph and telephone .
The nautical maps represent the seas , the exact delineation of the coasts and islands and useful information to the boats.
The maps do contain useful information for travelers.
The maps are used as a guide in the sport orientation .
The scale of reduction is the constant ratio between the linear dimensions of the paper , ie, the lengths graphics, and the respective distances on the Earth's surface or actual lengths . The ratio of 1 / X indicates that measured an inch on paper equals X millimeters on the real ground . The scale bar is built had the numerical scale . It is a straight line , divided in such a way that the parties representing the new drive linear scale numerical reduction and its submultiples.

The projections are used in cartography to represent on a plane ( the maps ), a phenomenon that in fact exists on the surface of the sphere.

It is impossible to prevent warping - the only representation that is free from deformation globe, performed on a sphere - the projections are chosen on the basis of their characteristics , ie on the basis of their inevitable defects ( deformation ) and their desirable qualities.

Depending on the characteristics, the cards can be made : maps equivalent, if the relationship is maintained between the surfaces and equidistant cards , is maintained if the ratio between the distances from one or two points ( as it is impossible to build cards with all the distances in the same scale ) ; equiangole cards or isogoniche or comply where the angles are preserved.

Additional features that may result from a projection are: the presence of rhumb lines : possible to draw a straight line on the paper route that cut the meridian angle ( compass ) the constant presence of lines ortodromiche : allow you to draw a straight line on the paper the shortest route.

According to the tangent plane to the sphere of some projections are called :
polar projection
equatorial projection
oblique projection
Depending on the technique used in the projections can be distinguished :
projection true - is based on geometric methods
azimuthal
Azimuthal own
azimuthal equidistant projection (polar , equatorial or oblique)
Azimuthal equivalent
Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection (polar , equatorial or oblique)
Azimuthal globular or Nicolosi
perspective projection
Azimuthal centrografica or gnomonic (polar , equatorial or oblique)
azimuthal stereographic projection (polar , equatorial or oblique)
Azimuthal scenic (polar , equatorial or oblique)
azimuthal orthographic projection (polar , equatorial or oblique)
growth projection
cylindrical projection
cylindrical projection centrografica
cylindrical projection centrografica true
cylindrical projection centrografica flat square
cylindrical projection centrografica flat rectangular
centrografica modified cylindrical projection Mercator
cylindrical projection centrografica sine Sanson
centrografica inverse cylindrical projection
orthographic cylindrical projection
conical projection
true or conical projection of Ptolemy
conic projection Secant Delisle
modified conical projection of Bonne
conventional projection - based on mathematical procedures
projection pseudocilindrica
projection of Mollweide
Hammer projection pseudocilindrica
elliptical projection of Eckert
sinusoidal projection of Eckert
projection pseudoconica
trapezoidal projection
projection polyconic
projection pliedrica or polycentric
interrupted projection
projection interrupted Mollweide
projection Omalo -sine Goode
projection stellar
other
Transverse Mercator projection from which the UTM
Gauss- Boaga
Peters’s world map